Thursday, September 21, 2017

Walk together to stay together

Source Website: http://www.tnp.sg/news/singapore/walk-together-stay-together
By Arul John, The New Paper, 21 September 2017 at 06:00 am


Big Walk participants signed up for chances to bond with family and friends
PHOTO: Big Walk participants signed up for chances to bond with family and friends
Roy with his uncle and grandmother during the Big Walk in 2004.
PHOTOS: LIM TENG KIAT
Picture posted by Arul John, The New Paper, 21 September 2017 at 06:00 am

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-7teSr7AN3UU/WcOQozI8L5I/AAAAAAAAoDM/TGKOrsIKAgw5zRgFTUCYhYDtbvJuEw2sACLcBGAs/s1600/NP_20170921_AJWALK21_1628000.jpg
http://www.tnp.sg/sites/default/files/styles/rl680/public/articles/2017/09/21/NP_20170921_AJWALK21_1628000.jpg?itok=HlHnL5iG
http://www.tnp.sg/news/singapore/walk-together-stay-together



Family time and bonding are buzzwords for these participants in the National Steps Challenge The New Paper Big Walk 2017.

Retired general manager Lim Teng Kiat, 50, will be walking for the third time. His previous Big Walks were in 2000 and 2004, when the event was still held at the National Stadium.

Mr Lim told The New Paper: "In 2000, I took part with my elder son, Roy, who was a young boy then. He is 21 years old now and unable to join us this year because of university exams.

 

Roy Lim taking part in the TNP Big Walk in 2000
PHOTO: Roy Lim taking part in the TNP Big Walk in 2000
PHOTOS: LIM TENG KIAT
Picture posted by Arul John, The New Paper, 21 September 2017 at 06:00 am

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-f4PvHxtr0QQ/WcOQoyK1OrI/AAAAAAAAoDI/jWA_NCbZ0PQVE-_dNbkf0emeouObEuVhQCLcBGAs/s1600/NP_20170921_AJWALK21-KYR_1628001.jpg
http://www.tnp.sg/sites/default/files/styles/rl680/public/articles/2017/09/21/NP_20170921_AJWALK21-KYR_1628001.jpg?itok=z-Cv6bJe
http://www.tnp.sg/news/singapore/walk-together-stay-together



"In 2004, I was accompanied by Roy, my mother and my brother. This year, I will be accompanied by my wife and 17-year-old son, Ryan."

He added: "The Big Walk has been great family bonding times for me and my family and I have fond memories of it..."

Teacher Senthamarai Saravanan fondly recalled taking part in the Big Walk a few times with her primary school scout troop several years ago.

Madam Senthamarai, who is in her 40s and now teaches in another school, said: "It helped bond me and the scouts closer. We had a lot of funand it was a great way to spend the weekend."

Last year, she and her husband, Mr Saravanan Sadanandom, also in his 40s, and their 10-year-old daughterhad signed up to join the Big Walk, but had to pull out when 
Mr Saravanan fell ill.

Madam Senthamarai said: "Our daughter will have fun and we are looking forward to doing this activity together as a family."

Quality manager Mark Alton, 56, an Australian who has worked in Singapore since 2008, is looking to walk with his wife, Jennifer.

He said: "She has not visited the National Stadium before, so the Big Walk will be a chance for her to see the stadium."

Mr Alton added: "I am busy with my work and Jennifer is busy at home and with some part-time jobs that she does. So we welcome any chance to do things together, be it for health or recreation or both."



The New Paper Big Walk (26 November 2017)
PHOTO: The New Paper Big Walk (26 November 2017)
WHEN Sunday, Nov 26, 7am
WHERE Starts at National Stadium, 
Singapore Sports Hub
HOW Register online at tnpbigwalk.sg
REGISTRATION FEE $25 (Early-bird sign-ups enjoy a 25 per cent discount)
WIN Lots of lucky draw prizes to be won, including the grand prize of an Osim u Love Massage Chair (bespoke version) worth $9,585.
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ZNhiIzZosk8/WcOQpi5HXTI/AAAAAAAAoDQ/5DWU9eBeKoUpvUQ4gxKpC3wvAUNkx4iwQCLcBGAs/s1600/np_20170921_bigwalk21_1628035.jpg
http://www.tnp.sg/sites/default/files/np_20170921_bigwalk21_1628035.jpg
http://www.tnp.sg/news/singapore/walk-together-stay-together



National Steps Challenge™ Season 3 is here!
PHOTO: National Steps Challenge™ Season 3 is here!
Step into a world of fun with more games, bigger prizes and a healthier you! All with 10,000 steps a day
Participants must be at least 17 years of age at the point of registration.
CHALLENGE PERIOD: 28 October 2017 to 30 April 2018
Picture posted by healthhub.sg
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-DF4lKkMkhzI/WbToDuWHmHI/AAAAAAAAn5I/flE5AjnCVboIQMAMJgxN9VxD3f7vMWZ5wCLcBGAs/s1600/step-into.jpg
https://www.healthhub.sg/sites/assets/Assets/Programs/nsc-2017/images/step-into.jpg
https://www.healthhub.sg/programmes/37/NSC
http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2017/09/step-up-to-become-healthier.html



The National Steps Challenge was introduced by the Health Promotion Board (HPB) in 2015 and has had two successful seasons.
PHOTO: The National Steps Challenge was introduced by the Health Promotion Board (HPB) in 2015 and has had two successful seasons. Over both campaigns, HPB successfully motivated over 500,000 participants to be more physically active.
Picture posted by Fit Girl's Diary

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-wvcO1T4Smlw/WbToC3IdrcI/AAAAAAAAn5E/VlOUGAe39nMYWsRfja50jur5P-dIHyzOQCLcBGAs/s1600/morning-rituals-compressor-1.png
http://fitgirlsdiary.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/morning-rituals-compressor.jpg
http://fitgirlsdiary.com/2016/02/20/15-fit-girls-morning-rituals-healthy-habits-that-changed-my-life/morning-rituals-compressor/
http://fitgirlsdiary.com/2016/02/20/15-fit-girls-morning-rituals-healthy-habits-that-changed-my-life/
http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2017/09/step-up-to-become-healthier.html


By Arul John, The New Paper, 21 September 2017 at 06:00 am


Walk together to stay together
PHOTO: Walk together to stay together
A road trip brings the two of them to a place none of them expected, regardless of environmental conditions.
Picture saved by EvernightTeen Publishing to LETTING GO by Bridie Hall

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-5ZJ3WwQfhGQ/WcOQo8HZgLI/AAAAAAAAoDE/cmq0MbzLp58EVE59PG4p2Het3HCTMw_ygCLcBGAs/s1600/6b138d6659d1cc4f4bb91bc1d1cc88b3.jpg
https://i.pinimg.com/originals/6b/13/8d/6b138d6659d1cc4f4bb91bc1d1cc88b3.jpg
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/410109109789333770/?lp=true




Reference
[1] Arul John, The New Paper, Walk together to stay together, posted on 21 September 2017 at 06:00 am, http://www.tnp.sg/news/singapore/walk-together-stay-together

Links
stepschallenge.sg  - http://stepschallenge.sg/

Do you know...about the Mooncake Festival

Source Website: http://www.asiaone.com/malaysia/do-you-knowabout-mooncake-festival
By The Star/Asia News Network, 21 September 2017


Mid-Autumn Festival, or Mooncake Festival, is traditionally celebrated on the 15th day of the eighth month of the Chinese lunar calendar.
PHOTO: Mid-Autumn Festival, or Mooncake Festival, is traditionally celebrated on the 15th day of the eighth month of the Chinese lunar calendar.
Picture posted by shopback

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-9qh9GRMrXf4/WcN4Hi3Ig2I/AAAAAAAAoCs/KhzmUa-5WZsHXsESTwui_R7i6B50p3uGwCLcBGAs/s1600/mooncake-2409858_1280-800x511.jpg
https://content.shopback.com/sg/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/13124928/mooncake-2409858_1280-800x511.jpg
https://www.shopback.sg/blog/tag/mooncake-festival



The Mid-Autumn Festival, or Mooncake Festival, is traditionally celebrated on the 15th day of the eighth month of the Chinese lunar calendar.

This year, it falls on 4th October. The festival, dating back to ancient China, pays homage to the moon and good harvest.

The use of "mid-autumn" to describe the celebration first appeared in the Rites of Zhou, a book on bureaucracy and organisation written more than 2,000 years ago.

The name "mooncake" to describe the sweet delicacy was used for the first time during the Tang Dynasty (618AD-907AD).

Like most Chinese festivals, it is steeped in history, legend and folklore.

A popular legend tells a story of how the Han Chinese rebels made use of mooncakes to pass on secret messages in the final uprising against Mongol rulers, leading to the creation of the Ming Dynasty in 1368.

There are also many tales around the origin of the festival. The most famous is about the beautiful Chang'e, who became the goddess of the moon after she took a longevity pill from a high-ranking deity.



Beautiful Chang'e, 嫦娥 (Cháng'é)
PHOTO: Beautiful Chang'e, 嫦娥 (Cháng'é) [2]
Chang'e became the goddess of the moon after she took a longevity pill from a high-ranking deity. In chinese mythology and folklore, she is the beautiful and extraordinary wife of 后羿 (hòu yì) who after became immortal flew to the fairy palace in the moon. She then led a lonely life away from her unfortunate norm on earth, appearing only occasionally during the mooncake festival with her only pet rabbit. Sometime their shadows can be seen on the bright full moon during mid-autum.
Picture posted by 爱汉服 (Ài hàn fú)
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-QFTfTMmtFyk/WcN4Ho5GpaI/AAAAAAAAoCw/-j0KUIN-hWYlvIBLvkRWtSg_IrGA2UAZgCLcBGAs/s1600/20141013121049209.jpg
http://static.aihanfu.net/uploadfile/2014/1013/20141013121049209.jpg
http://www.aihanfu.com/baike/44/



China's lunar exploration programme is known as the Chang'e programme. The Chang'e 3, an unmanned lunar exploration mission, landed on the moon on 14 December 2013.



嫦娥奔月 (Cháng'é bēn yuè) - Chang'e flee to the moon
PHOTO: 嫦娥奔月 (Cháng'é bēn yuè) - Chang'e flee to the moon
徒拿那沧桑的流年.乱了那若梦的浮生。- The fringe of the vicissitudes (transition) of life.
Tú ná nà cāng sāng de liú nián. Luàn le nà ruò mèng de fú shēng.
This fallen world, without the characteristic harmony and tolerance, resulting in a fleeting moment changes to complete suffering forever. Happiness is not base on accumulating for self but warm-hearted sharing. The cultivation of care for others and not on more acquisitions. The ultimate love for God and our neighbours are the basis for building treasures in heaven. As of all things and time, the significant are the favourable recording in the book of heaven, which determines our passport there.
Picture posted by duitang.com
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-WvsAjgcHL88/WcN4HvmrURI/AAAAAAAAoC0/QxPdVwbStYMTuv56eaEWZ3sAgngqJnD2gCLcBGAs/s1600/20140926063212_rfwXu.thumb.700_0.jpeg
https://b-ssl.duitang.com/uploads/item/201409/26/20140926063212_rfwXu.thumb.700_0.jpeg
https://www.duitang.com/blog/?id=349031001


By The Star/Asia News Network, 21 September 2017



Reference
[1] The Star/Asia News Network, Do you know...about the Mooncake Festival, posted on 21 September 2017, http://www.asiaone.com/malaysia/do-you-knowabout-mooncake-festival

[2] 爱汉服 (Ài hàn fú), 嫦娥 (Cháng'é), http://www.aihanfu.com/baike/44/

Links
pays homage to the moon and good harvest - http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/09/21/do-you-know-about-the-mooncake-festival/

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Cat in mourning refuses to leave master's grave

Source Website: http://www.asiaone.com/malaysia/cat-mourning-refuses-leave-masters-grave?link_time=1505789900
By  The Star/Asia News Network, 19 September 2017


The white cat (pic) refusing to leave its master's grave at the Al-Hidayah Mosque in Kelibang, Malaysia.
PHOTO: The white cat (pic) refusing to leave its master's grave at the Al-Hidayah Mosque in Kelibang, Malaysia.
PHOTO: The Star/Asia News Network

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-P-aTsdEY9JA/WcH2QBE04JI/AAAAAAAAoCE/LjlEwDv0NoAGTo5R-7kveaF9yxA1eZhOACLcBGAs/s1600/whitecatmourn_190917_thestar_0.JPG
http://www.asiaone.com/sites/default/files/styles/640x360/public/original_images/Sep2017/whitecatmourn_190917_thestar_0.JPG?itok=qg53N6dL
http://www.asiaone.com/malaysia/cat-mourning-refuses-leave-masters-grave?link_time=1505789900



LANGKAWI - A video clip of a white cat (pic) refusing to leave its master's grave at the Al-Hidayah Mosque in Kelibang here has gone viral.

The clip has been shared more than 22,000 times since it was uploaded at 2.42pm yesterday by Facebook user Soffuan CZ.

He wrote that his grandfather Ismail Mat passed away on Sunday shortly after he visited him.

"While the talqin was being read at the funeral, the white cat came and started circling the grave.

"My grandfather was the only one who cared for the cat while he was alive," he further wrote.



Devastated Cat Refuses to Leave Dead Owner’s Side at Funeral in Malaysia
PHOTO: Devastated Cat Refuses to Leave Dead Owner’s Side at Funeral in Malaysia
Picture posted by Bryan Ke on 19 September 2017

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zAzqo3LOE0c/WcH2QPpSrTI/AAAAAAAAoCI/cKUH46Na3cItOus-coKUckY7M6Dmav3qgCLcBGAs/s1600/sadcat-e1505844470870-1-1.png
https://nextshark-vxdsockgvw3ki.stackpathdns.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/sadcat-e1505844470870.jpg
https://nextshark.com/devastated-cat-refuses-leave-dead-owners-side-funeral-malaysia/



Efforts to make the cat leave by the relatives were futile as it insisted on remaining there.

Netizens were unhappy at how the cat was being treated.

One wrote that an animal will also feel sad when its master dies and it should be allowed to mourn.



PHOTO: A white cat mourning its owner’s death and refusing to leave his grave during the funeral ceremony is bringing everyone to tears.
Image via Facebook
Picture posted by Bryan Ke on 19 September 2017

https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-v8SgAUHkor0/WcH2QNwxyiI/AAAAAAAAoCM/ShFEFCmkbwwWIP2IJgGvRn8DtLzdJzoMwCLcBGAs/s1600/Cat-Funeral-3%2B-1.png
https://nextshark-vxdsockgvw3ki.stackpathdns.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Cat-Funeral-3.jpg
https://nextshark.com/devastated-cat-refuses-leave-dead-owners-side-funeral-malaysia/


By  The Star/Asia News Network, 19 September 2017



PHOTO: What do we really need? All we need, all we’ll ever need, is Him and the grace to live a life such that we will be welcomed into Eternity when we die. [3]
Picture posted by HDWallSource
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-pgNO9DUDv7w/WcILwO5sNqI/AAAAAAAAoCc/DNj8ZPFpfV8Tgtm7WwNh3iGV5PyoaSjVwCLcBGAs/s1600/girl-mood-background-42761-43773-hd-wallpapers.jpg
https://hdwallsource.com/img/2014/8/girl-mood-background-42761-43773-hd-wallpapers.jpg
https://hdwallsource.com/girl-mood-background-42761.html 



Reference
[1] The Star/Asia News Network, Cat in mourning refuses to leave master's grave, posted on 19 September 2017, http://www.asiaone.com/malaysia/cat-mourning-refuses-leave-masters-grave?link_time=1505789900

[2] Bryan Ke, Devastated Cat Refuses to Leave Dead Owner’s Side at Funeral in Malaysia, posted on on 19 September 2017, https://nextshark.com/devastated-cat-refuses-leave-dead-owners-side-funeral-malaysia/


[3] Marge Fenelon, When God closes a door, does he always open a window?, posted on 10 August 2015, http://www.patheos.com/blogs/margefenelon/2015/08/when-god-closes-a-door-does-he-always-open-a-window/

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Dialysis - How it's performed

Source Website: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/Pages/How-haemodialysis-is-performed.aspx
By NHS Choices, last reviewed on 07 July 2015


How Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Work
PHOTO: How Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Work
Picture posted by United Dialysis Center on 28 July 2016

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-XyTQtHOriGo/WcDEudljQZI/AAAAAAAAoBo/wLTjixvpTRAlRMFhgYjar9nH-0trfpqowCLcBGAs/s1600/dialysistypes-1080x675.jpg
http://www.pompanodialysis.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/dialysistypes-1080x675.jpg
http://www.pompanodialysis.com/how-hemodialysis-and-peritoneal-dialysis-work/



There are two main types of dialysis: haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Haemodialysis involves diverting blood into an external machine, where it's filtered before being returned to the body
Peritoneal dialysis involves pumping dialysis fluid into the space inside your abdomen (tummy) to draw out waste products from the blood passing through vessels lining the inside of the abdomen

These two treatments are outlined in more detail below.

Haemodialysis
Preparing for treatment
Before haemodialysis can start, you'll usually need to have a special blood vessel created in your arm, called an arteriovenous fistula (AV fistula). This blood vessel is created by connecting an artery to a vein.

Joining a vein and an artery together makes the blood vessel larger and stronger. This makes it easier to transfer your blood into the dialysis machine and back again.



Arteriovenous fistula (AV fistula)
PHOTO: Arteriovenous fistula (AV fistula)
A special blood vessel created in the arm by connecting an artery to a vein.
In haemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula makes the blood vessel larger and stronger, making it easier to transfer the blood into the dialysis machine and back again.
Picture posted by Dreamstime

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-yI7PhZyLNFg/WcDEt5vVErI/AAAAAAAAoBk/UoEsBYDTbSEj5aqpK50P9uqG0A3dkNfNgCLcBGAs/s1600/dialysis-arteriovenous-fistula-blood-taken-patient-kidney-failure-using-arm-artery-vein-created-adobe-58692062.jpg
https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/b/dialysis-arteriovenous-fistula-blood-taken-patient-kidney-failure-using-arm-artery-vein-created-adobe-58692062.jpg
https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-dialysis-arteriovenous-fistula-blood-taken-patient-kidney-failure-using-arm-artery-vein-created-adobe-image58692062



The operation to create the AV fistula is usually carried out around four to eight weeks before haemodialysis begins. This allows the tissue and skin surrounding the fistula to heal.

If your blood vessels are too narrow to create an AV fistula, an alternative procedure known as an AV graft may be recommended. A piece of synthetic tubing (graft) is used to connect the artery to the vein.

As a short-term measure, or in an emergency, you may be given a neck line. This is where a small tube is inserted into a vein in your neck.

The haemodialysis process
Most people need three sessions of haemodialysis a week, with each session lasting around four hours. This can be done in hospital, or at home if you've been trained to do it yourself.



Haemodialysis
PHOTO: Haemodialysis
Posted by NHS Choices, last reviewed on 07 July 2015

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-_zgocn6ZXjs/WcDEu2iJOgI/AAAAAAAAoBs/YuK_v5sDF9gev9szIoA3mMfyPe0FOFuoACLcBGAs/s1600/haemodialysis_300x174_dy7tp4.jpg
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/PublishingImages/haemodialysis_300x174_dy7tp4.jpg
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/Pages/How-haemodialysis-is-performed.aspx



Two thin needles will be inserted into your AV fistula or graft and taped into place. One needle will slowly remove blood and transfer it to a machine called a dialyser or dialysis machine.

The dialysis machine is made up of a series of membranes that act as filters and a special liquid called dialysate.

The membranes filter waste products from your blood, which are passed into the dialysate fluid. The used dialysate fluid is pumped out of the dialyser and the filtered blood is passed back into your body through the second needle.



Haemodialysis
PHOTO: Haemodialysis
Picture posted by Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository on 17 January 2008 at 21:06

https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EmLAbpRmry4/WcDErpHAcPI/AAAAAAAAoBU/m30O63RWiTcTByUM1aGB_WgLtqJ6RCPlgCLcBGAs/s1600/2000px-Hemodialysis-en.svg.png
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Hemodialysis-en.svg/2000px-Hemodialysis-en.svg.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hemodialysis-en.svg



During your dialysis sessions, you will sit or lie on a couch, recliner or bed. You will be able to read, listen to music, use your mobile phone or sleep.

Haemodialysis isn't painful, but some people feel a bit sick and dizzy, and may have muscle cramps during the procedure. This is caused by the rapid changes in blood fluid levels that occur during the treatment.

After the dialysis session, the needles are removed and a plaster is applied to prevent bleeding. If you were treated in hospital, you can usually go home shortly afterwards.

Fluid and diet restrictions
If you're having haemodialysis, the amount of fluid you can drink will be severely restricted.

This is because the dialysis machine won't be able to remove two to three days' worth of excess fluid from your blood in four hours if you drink too much. This can lead to serious problems where excess fluid builds up in your blood, tissues and lungs.

The amount of fluid you're allowed to drink will depend on your size and weight. Most people are only allowed to drink 1,000-1,500ml (two to three pints) of fluid a day.

You'll also need to be careful what you eat while having haemodialysis because minerals such as sodium (salt), potassium and phosphorus that would normally be filtered out by your kidneys can build up to dangerous levels quickly between treatment sessions.



There is a need to be careful what to eat while having haemodialysis because minerals such as sodium (salt), potassium and phosphorus that would normally be filtered out by the kidneys can build up to dangerous levels quickly between treatment sessions.
PHOTO: There is a need to be careful what to eat while having haemodialysis because minerals such as sodium (salt), potassium and phosphorus that would normally be filtered out by the kidneys can build up to dangerous levels quickly between treatment sessions.
The amount of fluid allowed to drink will depend on the body size and weight. Most people are only allowed to drink 1,000-1,500ml (two to three pints) of fluid a day.
Picture posted by wikiHow
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-clB5k1VR1Lw/WcDEs8tK3XI/AAAAAAAAoBc/EHkPVg4rjsQk-yYMqVii6_GJKTuHH0bGgCLcBGAs/s1600/aid508293-v4-728px-Gain-Weight-as-a-Recovering-Anorexic-Step-6.jpg
http://pad2.whstatic.com/images/thumb/b/bf/Gain-Weight-as-a-Recovering-Anorexic-Step-6.jpg/aid508293-v4-728px-Gain-Weight-as-a-Recovering-Anorexic-Step-6.jpg
http://www.wikihow.com/Gain-Weight-as-a-Recovering-Anorexic



You'll be referred to a dietitian so a suitable diet plan can be drawn up for you. Diet plans differ from person to person, but it's likely you'll be asked to avoid eating foods high in potassium and phosphorus and to cut down the amount of salt you eat.


Peritoneal dialysis
There are two main types of peritoneal dialysis:
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) – where your blood is filtered several times during the day
automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) – where a machine helps filter your blood during the night as you sleep

Both treatments can be done at home once you've been trained to carry them out yourself. They're described in more detail below.

Preparing for treatment
Before you can have CAPD or APD, an opening will need to be made in your abdomen. This will allow the dialysis fluid (dialysate) to be pumped into the space inside your abdomen (the peritoneal cavity).



A catheter is inserted into the space inside the abdomen (the peritoneal cavity).
PHOTO: A catheter is inserted into the space inside the abdomen (the peritoneal cavity).
Picture from timeline created by Celester Loh

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6pswM6ttObc/WcDEvS3bQvI/AAAAAAAAoBw/ScXQBqG5-H4PtY1z3AuJUY_keAP_1v56QCLcBGAs/s1600/mcdc7_peritoneal_dialysis.jpg
http://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.timetoast.com/public/uploads/photos/4489539/mcdc7_peritoneal_dialysis.jpg?1475050040
https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/milestones-on-the-development-of-peritoneal-dialysis



An incision is usually made just below your belly button. A thin tube called a catheter is inserted into the incision and the opening will normally be left to heal for a few weeks before treatment starts.

The catheter is permanently attached to your abdomen, which some people find difficult. If you're unable to get used to the catheter, you can have it removed and switch to haemodialysis instead.

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
The equipment used to carry out CAPD consists of:

  • a bag containing dialysate fluid
  • an empty bag used to collect waste products
  • a series of tubing and clips used to secure both bags to the catheter
  • a wheeled stand that you can hang the bags from

Peritoneal dialysis, Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
PHOTO: Peritoneal dialysis, Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
Posted by NHS Choices, last reviewed on 07 July 2015
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-trXuKhP0IXw/WcDEte1j61I/AAAAAAAAoBg/gY_FTC4pnTUU4BYUjTC8OHY_xQM54A52ACLcBGAs/s1600/ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis_300x174_C0028768.jpg
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/PublishingImages/ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis_300x174_C0028768.jpg
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/Pages/How-haemodialysis-is-performed.aspx



At first, the bag containing dialysate fluid is attached to the catheter in your abdomen. This allows the fluid to flow into the peritoneal cavity, where it's left for a few hours.

While the dialysate fluid is in the peritoneal cavity, waste products and excess fluid in the blood passing through the lining of the cavity are drawn out of the blood and into the fluid.

A few hours later, the old fluid is drained into the waste bag. New fluid from a fresh bag is then passed into your peritoneal cavity to replace it, and left there until the next session. This process of exchanging the fluids is painless and usually takes about 30-40 minutes to complete.



Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
PHOTO: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
Picture posted by lucenxia.com

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-hrfPDyAxei0/WcDErox8TYI/AAAAAAAAoBQ/7FlxWOOGgdIqiDRvkASPd5SmDl_2nfk4wCLcBGAs/s1600/CAPD.jpg
http://www.lucenxia.com.my/files/editor_files//images/CAPD.jpg
http://www.lucenxia.com.my/page/153/Peritoneal-Dialysis/


Exchanging the fluids isn't painful, but you may find the sensation of filling your abdomen with fluid uncomfortable or strange at first. This should start to become less noticeable as you get used to it.

Most people who use CAPD need to repeat this around four times a day. Between treatment sessions, the bags are disconnected and the end of the catheter is sealed.

Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)
Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is similar to CAPD, except a machine is used to control the exchange of fluid while you sleep.



Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)
PHOTO: Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)
Posted by NHS Choices, last reviewed on 07 July 2015
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-1jt01rBxaAM/WcDEsVsJwrI/AAAAAAAAoBY/FxF8Qun15j8F7k-_yIvBXuyS5BD-VhYgQCLcBGAs/s1600/Peritoneal_dialysis_300x174_C0141211.jpg
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/PublishingImages/Peritoneal_dialysis_300x174_C0141211.jpg
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/Pages/How-haemodialysis-is-performed.aspx



You attach a bag filled with dialysate fluid to the APD machine before you go to bed. As you sleep, the machine automatically performs a number of fluid exchanges.

You'll usually need to be attached to the APD machine for 8-10 hours. At the end of the treatment session, some dialysate fluid will be left in your abdomen. This will be drained during your next session.



Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)
PHOTO: Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)
Picture posted by lucenxia.com

https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-43VJQCfBeC4/WcDErja4o0I/AAAAAAAAoBM/K_Nq5kqXCeYs3JhAK3WoqCvkIpSY3HY1ACLcBGAs/s1600/APD.png
http://www.lucenxia.com.my/files/editor_files//images/APD.png
http://www.lucenxia.com.my/page/153/Peritoneal-Dialysis/



During the night, an exchange can be temporarily interrupted if, for example, you need to get up to go to the toilet.

Some people who have APD worry that a power cut or other technical problem could be dangerous. However, it is usually safe to miss one night’s worth of exchanges as long as you resume treatment within 24 hours. You'll be given the telephone number of a 24-hour hotline you can call if you experience any technical problems.

Fluid and diet restrictions
If you're having peritoneal dialysis, there are generally fewer restrictions on diet and fluid intake compared with haemodialysis because the treatment is carried out more often.

However, you may sometimes be advised to limit how much fluid you drink and you may need to make some changes to your diet. A dietitian will discuss this with you if appropriate.

Dialysis and pregnancy
Becoming pregnant while on dialysis can sometimes be dangerous for the mother and baby.

It's possible to have a successful pregnancy while on dialysis, but you'll probably need to be monitored more closely at a dialysis unit and you may need more frequent or longer treatment sessions.

If you're considering trying for a baby, it's a good idea to discuss this with your doctor first.

Dialysis equipment
If you're having home haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, the supplies and equipment you need will normally be provided by your hospital or dialysis clinic.

You'll be told how to get and store your supplies as part of your training in carrying out the procedure.

It's important to make sure you have enough supplies of equipment in case of an emergency, such as adverse weather conditions that prevent you from obtaining supplies. Your doctor or nurse may suggest keeping at least a week's worth of equipment as an emergency backup supply.

You should also let your electrical company know if you're using home haemodialysis or automated peritoneal dialysis. This is so they can treat you as a priority in the event that your electrical supply is disrupted.

By NHS Choices, last reviewed on 07 July 2015



Reference
[1]  NHS Choices, Dialysis - How it's performed, last reviewed on 07 July 2015, http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dialysis/Pages/How-haemodialysis-is-performed.aspx

Links
cut down the amount of salt you eat - http://www.nhs.uk/livewell/goodfood/pages/cut-down-salt.aspx